Name: Copper Casting Sheep Head Furnace
Specification: 8.9 cm in diameter, 7.2 cm in bottom and 6.9 cm in height.
Age: Ming Dynasty
Copper casting sheep's first ear stove is an orphan product of Xuande stove in Ming Dynasty. It has uncovered the mysterious veil that collectors have not understood for nearly 600 years. Now it is a great fortune for the collectors to be present at Shenzhen Cultural Expo. Why is this stove the best and the most lonely in the world?
Let's enjoy it together: 1. In terms of size, most of the existing Xuande furnace sizes are 8 to 15 centimeters, and few are 8 centimeters. It is rare that the furnace sizes are less than 10 centimeters. 2. From the color and luster of Xuandelu, it is clearly recorded in historical books that the paper color of Buddhist sutras is the best. It is not Xuande's stove for three years if it is full of gold and inlaid with gold sheets. This furnace is a clean furnace. 3. The four-character seal of "Daming Xuande" and the six-character square "Daming Xuande Furnace" as the base of Xuande Furnace are the Royal funds. The standard identification methods are as follows: the copper stove made by the open stove is mainly of good shape and is carved with knives. Cleaning furnace is mainly heavy and tyrannical, most of which are castings. One sentence shows that the stove repeats its rhyme and the stove is despotic.
Xuande Furnace is an incense burner created during the reign of Xuande in Ming Dynasty. It is usually used in mausoleums, temples and powerful houses to burn incense, worship Buddhas and worship ancestral gods.
During the 300 years of Ming Dynasty, numerous artifacts were made, which can be called excellent works. Xuande Furnace, as one of them, can be said to have no way to learn before and no way to continue. It deserves to be regarded as an exquisite antique in the world. It is the crystallization of the wisdom and art of ancient craftsmen in China.
The basic shape of Xuande Furnace is open, square or round lip, short and thin neck, flat drum belly, three blunt cone-shaped solid foot or crotch empty foot, bridge-shaped ear or beast-shaped ear on the mouth edge. The inion period is more than the outside of the Furnace, similar to Xuande Porcelain.
Xuande furnace features: First, there are many raw materials, in addition to copper, there are gold, silver and other valuable materials added, so the quality of the furnace is particularly delicate, dark purple or black brown. Secondly, the refining process is complicated. Generally, the burden of the furnace should undergo four refining processes, while the Xuande furnace should undergo twelve refining processes. Therefore, the quality of the furnace will be more fine, such as baby skin. Circulating history
When Emperor Xuande was in power, it was said that the Buddhist palace in the palace was on fire, and gold, silver and bronze statues were mixed into liquids. It is also said that the Buddhist ures were on fire and gold, silver and jewelry were sintered together with copper. Emperor Xuande ordered them to be cast into copper stoves. Emperor Xuande asked the founder, "How many times can copper be refined?" The caster answered that if copper was smelted in six fires, the jewelry would shine. So Emperor Xuande ordered that twelve fires be made into strips of copper. The copper bars are melted by red fire and placed on the sieve made of steel. The purity of the first drop is selected to make the furnace. The remaining copper bars are removed from the sieve to make other articles.
In the middle of Xuande, Xuande stove imitated the burning spot of Song Dynasty, concealed the essence of the stove, soaked, wiped and fumigated with a foreign brine, and changed the color into wax tea. At the end of Xuande period, it showed more natural color and lighter color. Later generations commented that Xuande stove has five colors: chestnut shell, eggplant skin, tangli, brown, and the color of Buddhist ure paper is the first. The bottom of the hearth of the gold smelting furnace is cast into the appearance of Xiangyun surging up, and the bottom of the hearth of the gold smelting furnace is the appearance of Xiangyun overturning. As for the color of chicken skin, it is only when the fire grows.
Xuande furnace is the first copper castings made of brass in Chinese history. Emperor Xuande of the Ming Dynasty personally urged the production of fine copper stoves, which was rare in history. Xuande Furnace takes color as its highlight and its color melts in. This Xuande stove is made of brass. The base book is "Daming Xuande Annual System" regular with a base. Its stove shape is regular and smooth, which is delicate and elegant as the study furnishings. Burning incense inside, hundreds of years of history with the heavy sense of spillover fragrance. It is full of body light, pure and beautiful copper stove, copper quality, heavy start. This "Xuander Furnace" originated from Christie's New York Rockefeller Center Auction in September 2012. It has been lost overseas for many years. Now it has returned to the motherland after crossing the ocean, and its good taste is quite precious.
he basic shape of Daming Xuande Furnace is open, square or round lip, short and thin neck, flat drum belly, three blunt cone-shaped solid foot or crotch empty foot, with bridge-shaped ear or beast-shaped ear on the mouth edge. The inion period is more than the outside of the Furnace, which is similar to Xuande Porcelain.
In addition to copper, there are precious materials such as gold and silver added, so the furnace is particularly delicate, dark purple or black brown. Generally, the burden of the furnace should be four refining, while the Xuande furnace should be twelve refining, so the quality of the furnace will be more pure, such as baby skin. The Xuande stove with gold-plated or gold-plated flakes glitters with gold, which can give people a feeling of extraordinary utensils.
During the reign of Emperor Xuande in the Ming Dynasty, in order to satisfy his hobby of enjoying incense stoves, he ordered a batch of red bronze imported from Siam Luoguo, and ordered the imperial court craftsman Lu Zhen and Wu Bangzou, the Minister of industry, to design and supervise incense stoves by referring to the style of the Chai kiln, Ru kiln, Guanyao, Geyao kiln, Jun kiln kiln, Ding kiln pottery, and other historical books such as Xuanhe Bogu Tulu and Archaeological Map.
In order to ensure the quality of incense burners, Lu Zhenshivering to the emperor, to make a good incense burner, copper has to be refined six times. Once refining, less, six times down, only half of the raw material will be left. Emperor Xuande was rich and highly conscious of fine products. He not only refined his purport, but also doubled it (twelve times) and added precious metals such as gold and silver. So the craftsmen selected dozens of precious metals, such as gold, silver, and so on. They were carefully cast together with red copper for more than ten times. After great efforts, Xuande three years, the best copper incense stove was finally made successfully.
This batch of red copper has produced 3000 incense burners, which have never been produced since. Emperor Xuandedi saw these incense burners which he personally inquired about, each with unusual atmospheric atmosphere and brilliant brilliance. Most of these incense burners are displayed in various places of the palace, and a small part of them are rewarded and distributed to Royal relatives, prominent courtiers and temples with large-scale incense. These Xuandelu ordinary people only know its name but not its shape. After hundreds of years of ups and downs, the copper incense stove cast in Xuande for three years is extremely rare.
Xuande stove in Daming Dynasty is a treasure of Ming Dynasty crafts. The successful founding of Xuande stove opened the pioneer of copper stove in later generations. In a long period of history, Xuande stove became the general name of copper incense stove.
In order to make huge profits, from the Ming Dynasty Xuande period to the Republic of China period, antique dealers imitated Xuande stove activities have never stopped. Just after the Xuande furnace stopped manufacturing, some officials in charge of the "casting business" called the original foundry craftsmen to imitate the Xuande furnace according to its drawings and process procedures. These carefully forged imitations can be compared with the real ones, and the experts'authority can not distinguish them. So far, there are many Xuande stoves in the major museums in China, none of which can be recognized as the real Xuande stoves by many experts. The identification of the true and false Xuandelu has become one of the "suspended cases" in Chinese archaeology.
The above reasons make the copper incense stove engraved with Xuande style knowledge very cheap in the international art market, far less than the price of other ancient Chinese bronzes.
Incense-burning custom has a long history in our country. Usually people incense clothes for etiquette. More ancient scholars like to burn a column of incense in the study of reading and writing to create the artistic conception of "red sleeves add incense to night reading". Therefore, incense burners made of pottery, porcelain, copper, iron and tile appeared as early as the Han Dynasty. At the end of Yuan Dynasty and the beginning of Ming Dynasty, with the rapid development of bronze casting industry, the incense stoves of other materials were gradually replaced by the incense stoves of copper. Xuande period of Ming Dynasty was the peak stage of making the incense stoves of copper.
Xuande furnace in different periods has different emphasis on accuracy and quality. Open stove is full of charm. Whatever the overall or detailed design, it is interesting. The stoves in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties had a sense of simplicity and gravity. In Yongzheng period, the furnace lines were gentle, while in Qianlong period, the refined furnace technology reached the highest level in history. It is worth noting that there was no horizontal word in the bottom paragraph of Xuande Furnace. At that time, it was called "saving one virtue". After many checks, it was also unconscious.
The genuine pulp is warm and moist, and contains precious gas. It remains unchanged for a long time. The pulp of fake products is withered and some are like paints. The longer they last, the more durable they will be. The old saying has five colors, namely, Buddhist ure paper, chestnut shell, eggplant skin, tangli, brown, of which the color of Buddhist ure paper is the first. A copper stove (19.2 cm high) in Shanghai Duoyun Xuan's 1995 photographs can reach the paper color of Buddhist sutras. In addition, the value of some copper stoves sprinkled with gold and staggered with gold made by special technology is several times higher than that of ordinary copper stoves.
The quality of genuine casters is average, while that of fine casters is quite fine. Fake casters are uneven, good or bad, or rough. The shape is elegant and thick. It is better to have ears and feet than to have no ears and feet. The finer the caster, the better. In terms of size, 8-12 cm diameter furnace is the most common, belonging to small size; 15 cm diameter furnace is medium size, the number is less than small size, but the value is higher than small size; and more than 20 cm diameter furnace is large size, the craft is rare, the value is also high. In the case of the same size, the heavier the furnace, the higher the value. The propaganda stove in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties, which is only 15.8 centimeters in diameter and weighs up to 7 kilograms, is a super-heavyweight player in the copper stove of this size. Its value is several times higher than that of the ordinary one, which weighs 3 kilograms.
The genuine product has natural uniform wear, especially on the sole. Fake products are free from wear and tear or artificial polishing.
The more refined the model, the more strange it will be, the more it will help dating, and the higher the value of the copper stove. Xuande Furnace was cast in Ming, Qing and Republic of China, but how to determine the age? From the overall shape, the overall style of the Ming Dynasty copper stove is elegant and thick.
In the late Ming, early Qing and early Qing dynasties, copper stoves were still thick, but not as elegant as before. From then on to the 18th century, the style tended to be delicate, trying to change in shape and decoration, some of which were elegant, but generally lacked in richness. The following two pictures are the author's collection. The original London Christie's photo was 31.8 centimeters high. During the Qianlong period and Qianlong period, the decoration was complex and the coral mosaic was complete.
宣德炉的造型只是它的外形，其内腔亦有欣赏和断代价值，反映了匠心和时代的审美情趣。感觉明匠更注重内腔的造型设计，尤其想表达炉腔的纵深感(横向的和竖向的)。横向的纵深感以弧线大来体现，竖向的纵深感以炉腔深来表达： 炉壁不等厚，上下厚，中间薄； 炉口壁直，向内腔过度有棱角；内腔底低； 内腔底面径小； 内腔的最凸处低于外形的最凸处。
The shape of Xuande Furnace is only its shape, and its inner chamber also has the value of appreciation and interruption, reflecting the ingenuity and aesthetic taste of the times. It is felt that the artisan pays more attention to the shape design of the chamber, especially to express the depth of the chamber (horizontal and vertical). The transverse sense of depth is expressed by the large arc, while the vertical sense of depth is expressed by the cavity depth: the furnace wall is unequal thickness, the upper and lower thicknesses, and the middle is thin; the furnace mouth is straight, and there are excessive edges and corners towards the inner cavity; the bottom of the inner cavity is low; the bottom diameter of the inner cavity is small; the most convex part of the inner cavity is lower than the most convex part of the shape.
Many collectors believe that Xuande stove contains gold. Some people think that the "snowflake gold" spot on the surface of some copper stoves is the reflection of gold in copper. Some people think that if the proportion of Xuande furnace exceeds that of copper, there must be gold. "Snow gold" is a stain, not gold in copper, because even if gold is added to copper, the finished product can not be separated from gold. The proportion of some Xuande furnaces is higher than that of copper, but this does not suffice to explain the gold content in the furnaces. The proportion of many metals is higher than that of copper. It is possible that other metals may be added to the foundry of these furnaces.
1.39 million transactions, bronze Elephant Ear Xuande furnace
Qian Zhi: "Wu Bangzuo Made in Xuande Five Years" in regular
This incense stove style comes from Ming Xuande stove. It is made of gold and copper. The shape of the stove is regular. Straight mouth, two elephant ears on both sides, elephant head with thick eyebrows and apricots, long nose vertical, natural and delicate expression, follow the "peaceful elephant" lucky decoration, slurry stable, elegant color, thick without losing dexterity and delicacy, is to furnish elegant utensils for the study. Inside the incense burning, the sense of history overflows with the fragrance. If you are in the incense burning, you stop with the fragrance, but you lose it. The base book "Xuande five years Wu Bangzuo made" regular paragraph. With pedestal.