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稀品铜铸羊首耳炉诚寻大收藏家

尊华文化 术赤9747 著 2019.04.17

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博雅珊艺术中心

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名称:铜铸羊首耳炉

Name: Copper Casting Sheep Head Furnace

类别:杂项

Category: Miscellaneous

规格:口径8.9cm,底径:7.2cm,高:6.9cm

Specification: 8.9 cm in diameter, 7.2 cm in bottom and 6.9 cm in height.

年代:明代

Age: Ming Dynasty

价格:议价

Price: bargaining

 

简介:

Brief introduction:

铜铸羊首耳炉,是明朝时期的宣德炉孤品,揭开了近六百年古今收藏家对它悬而未解的神秘面纱,而今现身深圳文博会的现场,可谓是当今收藏界的一大幸事,此炉何为精中之极,极中之孤呢。

让我们共同欣赏一下:1,从器型大小而言,现存世宣德炉尺寸8到15厘米的居多,8厘米的少有,小于10厘米的实属罕见。2,从宣德炉的色泽而论史籍中有明确记载,佛经纸色为最佳。如有通体满鎏金并镶嵌金片不是宣德三年的炉。此炉为清式炉。3,宣德炉的底款“大明宣德”四字篆体和六字方款“大明宣德炉”为皇家御用款识。流传至今标准的鉴别方法如下:明炉用铜极少所制作的铜炉以型好为主,款为刀刻款。清炉主要厚重霸气,款多为铸款。一句话说明炉重韵,清炉霸气。

Copper casting sheep's first ear stove is an orphan product of Xuande stove in Ming Dynasty. It has uncovered the mysterious veil that collectors have not understood for nearly 600 years. Now it is a great fortune for the collectors to be present at Shenzhen Cultural Expo. Why is this stove the best and the most lonely in the world?

Let's enjoy it together: 1. In terms of size, most of the existing Xuande furnace sizes are 8 to 15 centimeters, and few are 8 centimeters. It is rare that the furnace sizes are less than 10 centimeters. 2. From the color and luster of Xuandelu, it is clearly recorded in historical books that the paper color of Buddhist sutras is the best. It is not Xuande's stove for three years if it is full of gold and inlaid with gold sheets. This furnace is a clean furnace. 3. The four-character seal of "Daming Xuande" and the six-character square "Daming Xuande Furnace" as the base of Xuande Furnace are the Royal funds. The standard identification methods are as follows: the copper stove made by the open stove is mainly of good shape and is carved with knives. Cleaning furnace is mainly heavy and tyrannical, most of which are castings. One sentence shows that the stove repeats its rhyme and the stove is despotic.

设计工艺

宣德炉,为明朝宣德年间创制的焚香之炉,通常用于陵墓、寺庙及权势之家烧香,拜佛、祭祖神。

明朝300年间,制作了不可胜数的器物,可称上乘之作。宣德炉作为其中的一种,可谓前无所师法,后无能为继,不愧为天地间一精美绝伦的古董,是我国古代工匠智慧和艺术的结晶。

宣德炉的基本形制是敞口、方唇或圆唇,颈矮而细,扁鼓腹,三钝锥形实足或分裆空足,口沿上置桥形耳或了形耳或兽形耳,铭文年款多于炉外底,与宣德瓷器款近似。

宣德炉的特色:一是原料多,除铜之外,还有金、银等贵重材料加入,所以炉质特别细腻,呈暗紫色或黑褐色。二是炼次繁,一般炉料要经四炼,而宣德炉要经十二炼,因此炉质会更加纯细,如婴儿肤。流传历史

宣德皇帝在位时,传说宫内的佛殿失火,金银、铜像都混成液体。又传说是佛典起火,金银珠宝与铜都烧结在一起,于是宣德皇帝命令将其铸成铜炉。宣德皇帝询问铸工说,铜炼几次才能精纯?铸工回答说用六火炼铜,就会现出珠宝的光彩。于是宣德皇帝命令炼十二火,把铜做成条。再用赤火熔化铜条,置于钢铁制成的筛格上,把先滴下的最精纯的选取出来制成炉,把仍存于筛格上的取出来制成其他的器物。

宣德炉在宣德中期模仿宋代的烧斑,掩盖了炉的本质,就用一种外国产的卤液浸润、擦拭、薰洗,把色彩变为蜡茶。到了宣德末期,则更加显示它自然色泽,着色更淡。后人评论说,宣德炉有五等色:栗壳、茄皮、棠梨、褐色,而以佛经纸的色泽为第一。鎏金的炉腹下铸成祥云涌起的样子,鎏金的炉口下部为祥云翻覆的样子。至于鸡皮色,则是着火气长了才出现的。

Xuande Furnace is an incense burner created during the reign of Xuande in Ming Dynasty. It is usually used in mausoleums, temples and powerful houses to burn incense, worship Buddhas and worship ancestral gods.

During the 300 years of Ming Dynasty, numerous artifacts were made, which can be called excellent works. Xuande Furnace, as one of them, can be said to have no way to learn before and no way to continue. It deserves to be regarded as an exquisite antique in the world. It is the crystallization of the wisdom and art of ancient craftsmen in China.

The basic shape of Xuande Furnace is open, square or round lip, short and thin neck, flat drum belly, three blunt cone-shaped solid foot or crotch empty foot, bridge-shaped ear or beast-shaped ear on the mouth edge. The inion period is more than the outside of the Furnace, similar to Xuande Porcelain.

Xuande furnace features: First, there are many raw materials, in addition to copper, there are gold, silver and other valuable materials added, so the quality of the furnace is particularly delicate, dark purple or black brown. Secondly, the refining process is complicated. Generally, the burden of the furnace should undergo four refining processes, while the Xuande furnace should undergo twelve refining processes. Therefore, the quality of the furnace will be more fine, such as baby skin. Circulating history

When Emperor Xuande was in power, it was said that the Buddhist palace in the palace was on fire, and gold, silver and bronze statues were mixed into liquids. It is also said that the Buddhist ures were on fire and gold, silver and jewelry were sintered together with copper. Emperor Xuande ordered them to be cast into copper stoves. Emperor Xuande asked the founder, "How many times can copper be refined?" The caster answered that if copper was smelted in six fires, the jewelry would shine. So Emperor Xuande ordered that twelve fires be made into strips of copper. The copper bars are melted by red fire and placed on the sieve made of steel. The purity of the first drop is selected to make the furnace. The remaining copper bars are removed from the sieve to make other articles.

In the middle of Xuande, Xuande stove imitated the burning spot of Song Dynasty, concealed the essence of the stove, soaked, wiped and fumigated with a foreign brine, and changed the color into wax tea. At the end of Xuande period, it showed more natural color and lighter color. Later generations commented that Xuande stove has five colors: chestnut shell, eggplant skin, tangli, brown, and the color of Buddhist ure paper is the first. The bottom of the hearth of the gold smelting furnace is cast into the appearance of Xiangyun surging up, and the bottom of the hearth of the gold smelting furnace is the appearance of Xiangyun overturning. As for the color of chicken skin, it is only when the fire grows.

成色特质

宣德炉是中国历史上第一次运用黄铜铸成的铜器。为制作精品的铜炉,明朝宣德皇帝曾亲自督促,这在历史上实属少见。宣德炉以色泽为亮点,其色内融。此件宣德炉以黄铜制成,底书“大明宣德年制”楷书款,带底座。其炉身形制规整,敦厚之中不失灵巧精致,作为书房陈设颇为雅致。焚香其内,数百年历史的厚重感随香外溢。它通体光素,尽显铜炉精纯美质,铜质精良,入手沉甸。此“宣德炉”来源于纽约佳士得2012年9月纽约洛克菲勒中心拍卖会,流失海外多年,如今漂洋过海重归祖国怀抱,且品相完好,相当珍贵。

Xuande furnace is the first copper castings made of brass in Chinese history. Emperor Xuande of the Ming Dynasty personally urged the production of fine copper stoves, which was rare in history. Xuande Furnace takes color as its highlight and its color melts in. This Xuande stove is made of brass. The base book is "Daming Xuande Annual System" regular with a base. Its stove shape is regular and smooth, which is delicate and elegant as the study furnishings. Burning incense inside, hundreds of years of history with the heavy sense of spillover fragrance. It is full of body light, pure and beautiful copper stove, copper quality, heavy start. This "Xuander Furnace" originated from Christie's New York Rockefeller Center Auction in September 2012. It has been lost overseas for many years. Now it has returned to the motherland after crossing the ocean, and its good taste is quite precious.

大明宣德炉的基本形制是敞口、方唇或圆唇,颈矮而细,扁鼓腹,三钝锥形实足或分裆空足,口沿上置桥形耳或了形耳或兽形耳,铭文年款多于炉外底,与宣德瓷器款近似。

除铜之外,还有金、银等贵重材料加入,所以炉质特别细腻,呈暗紫色或黑褐色。一般炉料要经四炼,而宣德炉要经十二炼,因此炉质会更加纯细,如婴儿肤。鎏金或嵌金片的宣德炉金光闪闪,能够给人—种不同凡器的感觉。

he basic shape of Daming Xuande Furnace is open, square or round lip, short and thin neck, flat drum belly, three blunt cone-shaped solid foot or crotch empty foot, with bridge-shaped ear or beast-shaped ear on the mouth edge. The inion period is more than the outside of the Furnace, which is similar to Xuande Porcelain.

In addition to copper, there are precious materials such as gold and silver added, so the furnace is particularly delicate, dark purple or black brown. Generally, the burden of the furnace should be four refining, while the Xuande furnace should be twelve refining, so the quality of the furnace will be more pure, such as baby skin. The Xuande stove with gold-plated or gold-plated flakes glitters with gold, which can give people a feeling of extraordinary utensils.

铸造历史

明代宣德皇帝在位时,为满足玩赏香炉的嗜好,特下令从暹逻国进口一批红铜,责成宫廷御匠吕震和工部侍郎吴邦佐,参照皇府内藏的柴窑、汝窑、官窑、哥窑、钧窑、定窑名瓷器的款式,及《宣和博古图录》《考古图》等史籍,设计和监制香炉。

为保证香炉的质量,吕震战战兢兢地禀告皇上,欲制造出好香炉,铜还得精炼六遍。炼一遍,少一些,六遍下来,原料只会剩下一半。宣德皇帝财大气粗,精品意识超强,他当即下旨精炼的次数不仅不减,还要翻番(炼十二次),并加入金银等贵金属。于是工艺师挑选了金、银等几十种贵重金属,与红铜一起经过十多次的精心铸炼。经过巨大的努力,宣德三年,极品铜香炉终于制作成功。

这批红铜共铸造出3000座香炉,以后再也没有出品,宣德帝见到这批自己亲自过问的香炉,每只均大气异常,宝光四射,很有成就感。这些香炉,把其绝大部分陈设在宫廷的各个地方,也有一小部分赏赐和分发给了皇亲国戚,功名显赫的近臣和各个有规模香火旺盛的庙宇。 这些宣德炉普通百姓只知其名未见其形。经过数百年的风风雨雨,真正宣德三年铸造的铜香炉极为罕见。

During the reign of Emperor Xuande in the Ming Dynasty, in order to satisfy his hobby of enjoying incense stoves, he ordered a batch of red bronze imported from Siam Luoguo, and ordered the imperial court craftsman Lu Zhen and Wu Bangzou, the Minister of industry, to design and supervise incense stoves by referring to the style of the Chai kiln, Ru kiln, Guanyao, Geyao kiln, Jun kiln kiln, Ding kiln pottery, and other historical books such as Xuanhe Bogu Tulu and Archaeological Map.

In order to ensure the quality of incense burners, Lu Zhenshivering to the emperor, to make a good incense burner, copper has to be refined six times. Once refining, less, six times down, only half of the raw material will be left. Emperor Xuande was rich and highly conscious of fine products. He not only refined his purport, but also doubled it (twelve times) and added precious metals such as gold and silver. So the craftsmen selected dozens of precious metals, such as gold, silver, and so on. They were carefully cast together with red copper for more than ten times. After great efforts, Xuande three years, the best copper incense stove was finally made successfully.

This batch of red copper has produced 3000 incense burners, which have never been produced since. Emperor Xuandedi saw these incense burners which he personally inquired about, each with unusual atmospheric atmosphere and brilliant brilliance. Most of these incense burners are displayed in various places of the palace, and a small part of them are rewarded and distributed to Royal relatives, prominent courtiers and temples with large-scale incense. These Xuandelu ordinary people only know its name but not its shape. After hundreds of years of ups and downs, the copper incense stove cast in Xuande for three years is extremely rare.

历史价值

大明宣德炉是明代工艺品中的珍品,宣德炉的铸造成功,开了后世铜炉的先河,在很长一段历史中,宣德炉成为铜香炉的通称。

为了牟取暴利,从明代宣德年间到民国时期,古玩商仿制宣德炉活动从未间断。就在宣德炉停止制造后,部分主管“司铸之事”的官员,召集原来铸炉工匠,依照宣德炉的图纸和工艺程序进行仿造。这些经过精心铸造的仿品可与真品媲美,专家权威也无法辨别,至今国内各大博物馆内收藏的许许多多宣德炉,没有一件能被众多鉴定家公认为是真正的宣德炉。鉴别真假宣德炉已成为中国考古学中的“悬案”之一。

上述原因,使刻有宣德款识的铜香炉,在国际艺术品市场上价格极低廉,远远比不上其它造型的中国古代青铜器价格。

Xuande stove in Daming Dynasty is a treasure of Ming Dynasty crafts. The successful founding of Xuande stove opened the pioneer of copper stove in later generations. In a long period of history, Xuande stove became the general name of copper incense stove.

In order to make huge profits, from the Ming Dynasty Xuande period to the Republic of China period, antique dealers imitated Xuande stove activities have never stopped. Just after the Xuande furnace stopped manufacturing, some officials in charge of the "casting business" called the original foundry craftsmen to imitate the Xuande furnace according to its drawings and process procedures. These carefully forged imitations can be compared with the real ones, and the experts'authority can not distinguish them. So far, there are many Xuande stoves in the major museums in China, none of which can be recognized as the real Xuande stoves by many experts. The identification of the true and false Xuandelu has become one of the "suspended cases" in Chinese archaeology.

The above reasons make the copper incense stove engraved with Xuande style knowledge very cheap in the international art market, far less than the price of other ancient Chinese bronzes.

文化背景

焚香习俗在我国有着悠久的历史,通常人们为了礼仪将衣服薰香,更多的是古代文人雅士喜欢在读书、写字的书房内,焚上一柱香,营造“红袖添香夜读书”的意境。因此,早在汉代以前就出现陶、瓷、铜、铁、瓦为材料制成的香炉。元末明初随着铜器铸造业的迅速发展,原先其它材料的香炉,逐渐被铜香炉所取代,明代宣德年间是铜香炉制作的巅峰阶段。

Incense-burning custom has a long history in our country. Usually people incense clothes for etiquette. More ancient scholars like to burn a column of incense in the study of reading and writing to create the artistic conception of "red sleeves add incense to night reading". Therefore, incense burners made of pottery, porcelain, copper, iron and tile appeared as early as the Han Dynasty. At the end of Yuan Dynasty and the beginning of Ming Dynasty, with the rapid development of bronze casting industry, the incense stoves of other materials were gradually replaced by the incense stoves of copper. Xuande period of Ming Dynasty was the peak stage of making the incense stoves of copper.

品鉴辨识

不同时期的宣德炉在精度和质量上都有不同侧重点。明炉重韵味,不管是整体或者细部的设计,都耐人寻味。明末清初的炉有拙朴的厚重感。雍正时期的炉线条柔和,而乾隆时的精炉工艺水平达到历史最高点。值得注意的是,宣德炉底款的“德”字心上没有一横,当时有“省一德”之称,经多方查证,也有不省一横的。

Xuande furnace in different periods has different emphasis on accuracy and quality. Open stove is full of charm. Whatever the overall or detailed design, it is interesting. The stoves in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties had a sense of simplicity and gravity. In Yongzheng period, the furnace lines were gentle, while in Qianlong period, the refined furnace technology reached the highest level in history. It is worth noting that there was no horizontal word in the bottom paragraph of Xuande Furnace. At that time, it was called "saving one virtue". After many checks, it was also unconscious.

包浆色泽

真品包浆温润,宝气内蕴,长时间不变。伪品包浆枯槁,有的象油漆,越放久越耐看。旧说有五色,分别为佛经纸,栗壳,茄皮,棠梨,褐色,其中以佛经纸色为第一。上海朵云轩95年拍品中有一铜炉(高19.2厘米),其色泽就能达到佛经纸色。此外,一些使用了特种工艺制造的洒金、错金铜炉,其价值要比一般的铜炉高数倍。

The genuine pulp is warm and moist, and contains precious gas. It remains unchanged for a long time. The pulp of fake products is withered and some are like paints. The longer they last, the more durable they will be. The old saying has five colors, namely, Buddhist ure paper, chestnut shell, eggplant skin, tangli, brown, of which the color of Buddhist ure paper is the first. A copper stove (19.2 cm high) in Shanghai Duoyun Xuan's 1995 photographs can reach the paper color of Buddhist sutras. In addition, the value of some copper stoves sprinkled with gold and staggered with gold made by special technology is several times higher than that of ordinary copper stoves.

铸工造型

宣德炉

真品铸工质量平均,精品铸工相当精。伪品铸工不平均,有地方好有地方差,或者铸工粗糙。造型以古雅浑厚为上,有耳足的比无耳足的要好,铸工越精越好。以大小而言,径8-12厘米的炉最常见,属于小号;径15厘米左右的炉是中号,数量比小号少,但价值比小号高;而径大于20厘米的炉是大号,工艺精者稀见,价值也很高。在同样尺寸的情况下,炉越重价值也越高。如友所藏的明末清初的宣炉,径只有15.8厘米,而重量可达7斤,是该尺寸铜炉中的超重量级选手,价值要比普通的重3斤的高数倍

The quality of genuine casters is average, while that of fine casters is quite fine. Fake casters are uneven, good or bad, or rough. The shape is elegant and thick. It is better to have ears and feet than to have no ears and feet. The finer the caster, the better. In terms of size, 8-12 cm diameter furnace is the most common, belonging to small size; 15 cm diameter furnace is medium size, the number is less than small size, but the value is higher than small size; and more than 20 cm diameter furnace is large size, the craft is rare, the value is also high. In the case of the same size, the heavier the furnace, the higher the value. The propaganda stove in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties, which is only 15.8 centimeters in diameter and weighs up to 7 kilograms, is a super-heavyweight player in the copper stove of this size. Its value is several times higher than that of the ordinary one, which weighs 3 kilograms.

磨损款识

宣德炉

真品有自然均匀的磨损,特别是在足底。伪品无磨损或人为打磨。

款铸得越精越奇就越能帮助断代,而铜炉的价值也越高。宣德炉在明、清以及民国均有铸造,但如何判定年代的早晚呢?从整体造型上来说,明代铜炉的整体风格是雅致、浑厚。

发展到明末清初和清早期,铜炉依然浑厚,但不及早先的雅致。时至18世纪,风格开始趋向纤弱,在造型和装饰上力求变化,有的也雅致,但总体上浑厚不足。下两图是笔者藏品,原伦敦佳士得拍品,31.8厘米高,乾隆款和乾隆时期,纹饰较繁复,珊瑚镶嵌完整无缺漏。

The genuine product has natural uniform wear, especially on the sole. Fake products are free from wear and tear or artificial polishing.

The more refined the model, the more strange it will be, the more it will help dating, and the higher the value of the copper stove. Xuande Furnace was cast in Ming, Qing and Republic of China, but how to determine the age? From the overall shape, the overall style of the Ming Dynasty copper stove is elegant and thick.

In the late Ming, early Qing and early Qing dynasties, copper stoves were still thick, but not as elegant as before. From then on to the 18th century, the style tended to be delicate, trying to change in shape and decoration, some of which were elegant, but generally lacked in richness. The following two pictures are the author's collection. The original London Christie's photo was 31.8 centimeters high. During the Qianlong period and Qianlong period, the decoration was complex and the coral mosaic was complete.

内腔特征

宣德炉的造型只是它的外形,其内腔亦有欣赏和断代价值,反映了匠心和时代的审美情趣。感觉明匠更注重内腔的造型设计,尤其想表达炉腔的纵深感(横向的和竖向的)。横向的纵深感以弧线大来体现,竖向的纵深感以炉腔深来表达: 炉壁不等厚,上下厚,中间薄; 炉口壁直,向内腔过度有棱角;内腔底低; 内腔底面径小; 内腔的最凸处低于外形的最凸处。

The shape of Xuande Furnace is only its shape, and its inner chamber also has the value of appreciation and interruption, reflecting the ingenuity and aesthetic taste of the times. It is felt that the artisan pays more attention to the shape design of the chamber, especially to express the depth of the chamber (horizontal and vertical). The transverse sense of depth is expressed by the large arc, while the vertical sense of depth is expressed by the cavity depth: the furnace wall is unequal thickness, the upper and lower thicknesses, and the middle is thin; the furnace mouth is straight, and there are excessive edges and corners towards the inner cavity; the bottom of the inner cavity is low; the bottom diameter of the inner cavity is small; the most convex part of the inner cavity is lower than the most convex part of the shape.

仿品鉴别

1、当代仿。宣德三年宫廷封炉不铸之后,当时的监造者将原来的工匠再集中起来,另行铸造。由于原料不足,风磨铜已经用完而不复出,铸工只能以黄杂铜代之,虽做工与以前一般极尽精致。形态更为多变,但铜质终于不及。同时底款有了变化。字数增多,为“大明宣德五年监工部官吴邦佐造”和“工部员外臣李澄德监造”等,楷款、篆款均有。

2、明代中期仿。明代中期的正德年间,朝野亦需用铜香炉,因宣德炉已经深入人心,遂沿用宣德炉的造型和款式或稍加变化。此时炉的特色是铜色泛黄,器身铸有伊斯兰文。明代中期伊斯兰文化大量传入中国,致使正德皇帝亦信奉起伊斯兰教,所以当时制作的工艺品如铜器、瓷器、景泰蓝及许多的物品之上多有伊斯兰文(回文)的出现,至明末铸造的宣德炉上亦沿此风,并且楷书、篆书并用。

3、明末和清初仿造。该时的工艺美术器有了长足的进步和发展,所以宣德炉仿品制作亦美,并沿用明代的失蜡铸造法,但在造型上与明代相比,惟显灵巧而已。其胎亦厚重,色有暗红、橙黄等。款式上除了仿大明宣德款之外,还有署“袖云居”、“水云居”、“风月侣”等的篆书方款。

4、清晚期至民国时期仿。其铜质粗,砂眼多,炉壁薄,分量轻,有的以翻砂法浇铸,工艺更加粗糙。在北京前门大 [3]

收藏注意

宣德炉

不少收藏者认为宣德炉中含金。有些人认为有些铜炉表面的“雪花金”斑点就是铜质中含金的体现。有些人认为宣德炉若比重超过铜,就一定有金的成分。“雪花金”是一种色斑,不是铜质中含金,因为就算铜中加入金,炼出的成品也不可能呈金和铜分离的状态。有些宣德炉比重是比铜大,但这并不足以说明炉中含金,有多种金属的比重都大于铜,这些炉的铸造中有可能是加入了其他比重大的金属。

Many collectors believe that Xuande stove contains gold. Some people think that the "snowflake gold" spot on the surface of some copper stoves is the reflection of gold in copper. Some people think that if the proportion of Xuande furnace exceeds that of copper, there must be gold. "Snow gold" is a stain, not gold in copper, because even if gold is added to copper, the finished product can not be separated from gold. The proportion of some Xuande furnaces is higher than that of copper, but this does not suffice to explain the gold content in the furnaces. The proportion of many metals is higher than that of copper. It is possible that other metals may be added to the foundry of these furnaces.

成交记录

139万成交,铜象耳宣德炉

款识:“宣德五年吴邦佐造”楷书款

此件香炉样式来源于明宣德炉,以金铜制成,炉身形制规整。直口,两侧置双象耳,象首粗眉杏目,长鼻直竖,表情自然细腻,循“太平有象”之吉意装饰,包浆沉稳,色泽典雅,敦厚之中不失灵巧精致,是为书房陈设雅器。焚香其内,历史的厚重之感随香外溢,仿若置身其中,随香而止,怅然若失。底书“宣德五年吴邦佐造”楷书款。带底座。

1.39 million transactions, bronze Elephant Ear Xuande furnace

Qian Zhi: "Wu Bangzuo Made in Xuande Five Years" in regular

This incense stove style comes from Ming Xuande stove. It is made of gold and copper. The shape of the stove is regular. Straight mouth, two elephant ears on both sides, elephant head with thick eyebrows and apricots, long nose vertical, natural and delicate expression, follow the "peaceful elephant" lucky decoration, slurry stable, elegant color, thick without losing dexterity and delicacy, is to furnish elegant utensils for the study. Inside the incense burning, the sense of history overflows with the fragrance. If you are in the incense burning, you stop with the fragrance, but you lose it. The base book "Xuande five years Wu Bangzuo made" regular paragraph. With pedestal.

特别声明:本文为艺术头条自媒体平台“艺术号”作者上传并发布,仅代表该作者观点。艺术头条仅提供信息发布平台。
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